You must be a Permanent Resident in Canada and have lived in Canada for 1,095 days (3 years) in the five years before applying for Canadian citizenship.
You may also be able to use some of your time spent in Canada as a temporary resident or protected person towards your physical presence calculation.
Yes, if you are 18 - 54 years old, you must submit proof that demonstrates you can speak and listen in English or French at a Canadian Language Benchmark (CLB) of 4.
To become a citizen, you'll need to take a test to meet the knowledge requirement for citizenship if you are between 18 - 54 years old. You'll need to answer questions about Canada's values, history, symbols, institutions, and rights, responsibilities and privileges of citizenship, such as voting in elections and obeying the law.
The tests are in English or French, usually in a written format, unless you take it orally with a citizenship officer and made up of questions based on the Discover Canada study guide.